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tv   PBS News Hour Weekend  PBS  April 6, 2019 5:30pm-6:01pm PDT

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caioning sponsored by wnet >>ioreenivasan: on this edit for saturday, april 6: the president continues his push against immigration; in our signature story, a different border story playing out on the caribbean island of hispaniola; ivd an outpost of london's v&a museum along the tay in scotland. next on pbs newshour weekend. >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: bernard and irene schwartz. sue and edgawachenheim iii. seton melvin. the cheryl and philip milstein family. dr. p. roy vagelos and diana t. vagelos. the j.p.b. foundation. rosalind p. walter. barbara hope zuckerberg.
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corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual ro and group retirementcts. that's why we're your retirement company.ad tional support has been provided by: innd by the corporation for public broadca and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. from the tisch wnet studios at lincoln center in new york, hari sreenivasan. >> sreenivasan: good evening, and thanks for joining us. president trump used a speech to the republican jewish coalition's anal leadership meeting in las vegas today to ispeat his claim that ther crisis at the u.s.-mexico border and that asylum-seekers should be turned back. >> and i told my people yesterday, our country's full. we're full. our sys our country is full. can't come in. our country is full. what can you do? we can't handle anymore. our country is full. can't come in. rym sor it's very simple.>>
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reenivasan: although the president backed off of a threat to close the border earlier this week, he told the crowd of supporters that he would do it if mexico does not block migrants. >> unfortunately, democrats have refused to close immigration loopholes. that's really whait's all about. and, again, mexico has apprehended 1400 people yesterday, 1,000 people the day e before. theyver done this, never to the extent. and i appreciate it. i appreciate it. but if they don't do it, i'm going to clo the border, or m going to do tariffs or the cars made in mexico. they took 30% of our car business-- by the way, i wasn't here when that happened, okay? i used to complain abvit it as a cian. i complained. said, "what the hell is going ?"on >> sreenivasan: the president spent part of sterday at the s.-mexico border, pointing out a rebuilt sectioof wall completed last fall and claiming it as part of the wall he's beea ing be built since his 2016 campaign. for more on the president's vit and what's next, miche
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marizco, senior editor for public radio station kjzz's fronteras desk joins us now via skype from tucson, arizona. thanks for being with us. you know, right now we have the president kind of bac tk offhe "let's seal the border completely" threat. but what happens each time the besident says something like this to the locinesses, the residents that actually live along the border? >> two things happen. first, there are partial shutdowns. let's start there. those started at about the same time that he initiated the fst threat about a week and a half ago. what's been happening is th have been partially closing down certain shipping lanes between the u.s. and mexico, at el paso and juarez, and here in nogales. those are already adding hours of wait time. in el paso, upwards of nine and 10 hours of shipping just waiting in mexico cross. at the same time, this is als really concerning investors. you know, the border is trying
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to draw investment, trying to draw new flows of cash to these areas for building, for technology. this is scaring people away, and this is a ge, tremendous concern for people, for example, here in nogales. >> sreenivasan: what about execution of that-- of these orders, of these shutdowns? who is on the front lines. the border approximately doesn't have increased number of staff to go alo with ths. i imagine they're what, working longer hours. >> whaet thdefense diverted border and custom pesion officers away from these lanes and put them to work with u.s. p bordrol agents, the agents who patrol 20 ports of entry to help regulate and administer to the needs of asylum seekers. but then what ended up happening, is we already have a shortage of cpfb oficers along
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the entire border. and so now we have even ss officers that can be dedicated to the task of tank the flow of goods, people, and services across the border. >> sreenivasan: what about the mexican government's response to all this? >> so, the mexican president has played a very careful role heret first case, he's been somewhat dismissive. he said he didn't believe president trump would actually shut downtown border-- he was right about that. but he is also been boxing himself into a corner where eve though continues to give small concession-- for example, there ist least a suggestion that mexico has been ineasing deportations of central americans on behalf of the u.s.-- every time that they give a little bit of acquiescenceer the criticism has been coming in that the u.s. just demand even more from mexico. >> sreenivasan: kjzdz an the
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frontier's desk michael marizco joining us a skype today from tucson. thank you very much. >> thank you>>. o learn how president trump's threats to cose the border and impose tariffs on mexico are impacting the automobile and agricultural industries, visit pbs.org/newshour. >> there's another border stoiny plout in our hemisphere on the >> sreenivasan: ere is another rder story playing out in our hemisphere, on the caribbean island of hispaniola. the dominican republic and haiti sit side by side yet have a complex and fraught history. during the 20th century, hundreds of thousand of haitians crossed into the wealthier dominican republic to escape poverty and political instability, only to face color- based rasm and, at times, violent repression. recently, in what international human rights organizations took to be a swipe at those withia haroots, the dominican government made headlines when it ended birthright citizenshipr for ch born in the dominican republic tome undoed parents. newshour weekend's ivette
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feliciano has more as part of itour ongoing series on ha >> reporter: january in the dominican republic city of jimani, near the main border- crossi into haiti. earlier in the day, 34-year-old jesu l'homme exilair says he was detained. exilair, a btist pastor, says he was unjustly held by dominican immigratn authorities for six hours. >> ( translated ): they come and ask me, "hey, you, black guy? where are your documents?" i took them out, and they said, "get on the truck." and while we dve, i asked, "what is the problem here? i have my documents." and they sd they had to verify. >> reporter: exilair was born in dominican republic to haitian migrants, and he is a legal resident here. but he is not a dominican citizen, and he cannot vote. that's because, according to thn dominican gont, his haitian heritage makes exilair" a foreigner" in the country of
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his birth. >> ( translated ): they call you illegal. they say, "you are not from here. you are haitian. go to your country." most of us don't even know haiti. we don't know anyone there. >> reporter: it used to be that, with few exceptions, being born in the dominican republic made yocoa citizen, but titutional and legal revisions that took full effect in 2anged all that.la under the ne many dominicans born to undocumented parents between 1929 and 2007 would lose their citizenship. so would tir children, their children's children, and on and on. the dominican government has no estimate of the total number of people affected, but human rights groupestimate hundreds of thousands suddenly lost their citizenship. they were no longer eligible to vote, enroll in higher education, or legally work in the country. rom theanslated ): i'm minican republic. i am not from haiti.
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and they say, "no, you are here, but you are haitian." >> reporter: dominican lawmakers said changes to nationality laws were aimed at tackling decades of illegal migration from haiti. that's not the opinion of the inter-american commission on human rights, a watchdog arm of the organization of american states. ar claims the new laws are of a legacy of racial discrimination, xenophobia, and anti-haitianism in dominicanso ety. >> ( translated ): if i'm walking, since i have black poskin, they ask for my pa. >> reporter: givena reyes, who is dominican of haitian heritage, is a human rights worker. >> ( translated ): there are dominicans with black skin, e d the haitians with white skin. i don't understand why they don't hold everyone to the same standard.ic many doms walk around without their documents, and, if you have no documents on you, how do you prove your stionality? >> reporter: reyess there is historical precedent for the f racial discrimination. in the 20th century, tens of
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thousands of haitians, most of them black, migrated to the dominican republic to work in sugarcane fields and construction. but in 193 dominican dictator rafael trujillo, in an outspoken efforto make dominican society homogenous and lighter skinned,r calledhe execution of all haitians in the country. tens of thousands of haitian sugarcane laborers were killed by soldiers and dominican citizens. decades of colorism and anti- haitian legislation followed. vigilante killings of haitians by dominicans were documented as recently as 2015. >> racism is seen on a daily basis. when i was growing up, since i have black skin, children would call me "haitian devil." that's what they call you. they see you as less than them. >> reporter: reyes works at centro montalvo, a haitiants ridvocacy group in the dominican republic.
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in 2014 and 2015, she and other advocates here helped dominican- born haitian descendants goro h a new registration process the government demandedb anyonen to undocumented parents and not found in the country's civil registry had tot e gister wh the government as a foreigner or facportation. >> ( translated ): they gave me documents that say "igner," and, in the back, it says" cannot vote". i feelhat shouldn't be. it is not right. >> for the children of migrants, things have changed dramatically. >> reporter: cristina cuevas- florian is what's known as a d human righender with the centro montalvo. >> they've been stripped of their nationalittr they've beenped of everything. many have had to grow up fast and mature to the point where they can defend themselves, and understand their rhts and become documented. >> reporter: but many people ren't allowed to registe according to international observers, including amnesty international.
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it claimed the government process was a legal maze that most found impossible to navigate, and some werdeported during the registration period without due process. in response, dominican president danilo medina complained the country was wrongly being branded as anti-migrant and racist. he said it was simply implementing its laws and exercising its sovereignty. but based on the dominican vernment's own numbers, fewerio than 5% of denlized dominicans of haitian descent successfully registered with thn gont. ss ( translated ): when the registration pronded, they started picking up masses of people.o many of those ved here, had their children here, spent years here, they had to leave to haiti. there were even momentwhen they went into people's homes to grab the they'd run after people. so, people still feel fear. > reporter: more than 200,000
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dominicansf haitian descent and undocumented haitian migrants either fled or were deported to haiti between 2015 and 2017, accordinto the international organization for migration. here, on the haitian side of the border, makeshift camps sprung up. willy pierre works for the jesuit haitian rights organization s.j.m., a fnch acronym which, in english, stands for "solidarity with migrants along the haitian border."at >> ( tran ): they don't have haitian or dominican birth certificates even though they were born on dominican soil. it is the dominicans who decided to take away their dominican citizenship. and they no longer rognize them as dominican, and we can't recognize them as haitian. they don't havtheir feet on any soil. >> reporter: the dominican-born haitians became and remain effectively steless. -year-old viergena jean, a haitian national, lived in thedo minican republic for more than e o decades. shys four of her children
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were born there and thus were citizens before the new rules took effect, but they were all deported here to haiti. >> ( translated ): i was at the market, selling food, hey went to my house and took my kids. th put them in a vehicle a took them to haiti. >> reporter: her 15-year-o s son, innocens his experience with an immigration officer s traumatizing. >> ( translated "l he just said, 's go, let's go, let's go." and i said, "wait, we just need to grab something." and he said, "no, you can't go get anything. let's go, let's go." and he grabbed me and put men the bus. >> reporter: when she learned where they were several hours later, jean joined her children in haiti just across the border. they settled here in fond bayard, a community made up of deportees and others who have joined them. >> ( translated ): children feel
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very sad. i am verbrsad. when theght us here, we had no family here. se to go, with little or noeed connections in haiti, and no way to earn a living. in fact, he says many pay bribes to guards to illegally reenter the dominican republic in search of work. >> ( translated ): they do domestic work in the house or in the garden. many have families here who areo countingthem. >> reporter: but, he says most of them are simply sent back to haani. mewhile, advocates say dominicans of haitian descent who remain in the dominican republic live in a perpetualr. state of f teteam of lawyers, social workers, and vols at centro montalvo serve as observers at the borryr and at miliheckpoints along dominican highways. th say they document right abuses by dominican authorities. >> ( translated s sometimes thp me at the checkpoint, and they tell me my documents are not valid, and they ask me for 200 pesos.t was told that with these documents, i shouldn't have to pay not a single peso.
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>> reporter: despite his legal residency in the dominican republic, exilair has been detained three times in the last year by immigration officials. >> ( translated ): i said to them, "well, if this is how it works, it is imposble to be here legally." you are going to be picked up whether you haveme docus or not. it is like we have no value. >> reporter: authorities at the dominican republic's immigration enforcement agency, cesfront, declined a formal interview, but they told us they investigate any officer accused of asking of or accepting bribes and that many have been fined and, in some cases, fired. but officers also admitted that they routinely detain people by racially profiling them. exilair says his wife, parents, and several of his siblings wer nole to register with the dominican government, and theyle live here lly. they rarely leave their neighborhood for fear of deportatio he says his faith in god helps him cope with ths worries about future.
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>> sreenivasan: dundee, scotland, a coastal city of 150,000, is in theiddle of a reinvention its citizens hope will make it a major center r the arts. it may be too soon for comparisons to europe's ny cultural capitals, but, if a new museum is any indication, dundee might be well on its way. it's not like any other building in town. the first outpost of london's famed ctoria and albert museum sits on the edge of the river tay in dundee, scotland. you can almost see the hull of a ship in the builng's design, a nod to the city's maritime past. more than 2,400 panels of layered concrete hang from the exterior of the v&a dundee museum, as it's known here. world-renowned architect kengo kuma says his design inspiratioa from scotland's iconic cliffs.
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>> those cliff forms around scotland's coastline are such an important quality of this... of this country. >> sreenivasan: philip long is the director of v&a dundee. he ove the three and a half years it took to build, at a cost of mor than $llion. >> a great deal of that time was just in constructingarhis extraordexternal form. it's characterized by these leaning, twisting forms that put enormous pressures, physical pressures on the building's structure. it's cast in concrete in situ, and that itself was a very complex process. >> sreenivasanneinside, oak line the walls. and then, there's the open space. it's meant to part museum, part meet-up site, and part living room of sorts for the city. the goalf v&a dundee is to present the breadth of scotla's design history and ongoing innovation under one roof. so, within the museum, two main galleries carry a mix of objects. >> it's reputed that the first
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shot fired in the american war of independence was made with a scottish pistol. >> sreenivasan: curator meredith more took us on a tour of the permanent gallies. so, how much of scottish design plays into a sense of identity for the people here? >> so, ts set of galleries is really the first display that's really looking at scottish sign, in particular, rather than scottish history or scottish art. and, obviously, we were keen to think about what is unique about scottish design and whether there's aspects about our geography or our natural resources or our history and litical alliances that have sort of impacted on the particular design disciplines that have become successful here. >> sreenivasan: there are once-e darings. take this 1930s swimsuit manufactured by the famed spee company. speedo was founded by a scotsman living in australia. no sleeves meant swimsuits like these were banned on some beaches for being too revealing. the galleries also sho locally made furniture.
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what's this throne doing here? >> so, this is a chair made in orkney, which is one of the northern islands of scotland. and the islanders would make furniture from anything that they could find; s mostly driftwood and straw. >> sreenivasan: the river tay once carried the city's main export, processed jute, to the rest of the world. manufacturing the jute plant into textile employed close to half of dundonians at one point. but by the early 1900s, dundee could not compete wi cheaper jute textiles from countries like india and started losing its edge. the city has since struggled to regain that economic strength.no local officials are hoping the v&a will be a major part of its revitalization. john alexander heads the dundee city council. >> whilst it's a small institution itself-- it has around 80 employees-- the difference it's making to bringing that vibrancy back to a city that for many years had lost, i suppose, it's way cannot
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be discounted. it is significant, and it is something that we're reall proud of. >> sreenivasan: the council and local partners worked for years to bring v&a to dundee.ac in alexander was a child when discussions began on just how to reinvigliate this stru city. >> you do need to speculate to accumulate, and you need to r vest in opportunities foyour peoples. >> sreenivasan: this public garden we walked through is just one part of a $1.2 billion waterfront regeneration investment. this 600-acre area is part of a 30-year plan to build and improve commercial and cultural tes with the hope of attracting tourists and businesses. and 18 years in, the is new housing; a renovated train , ation; additional mixed using buildings for retafices, and hotels; and new attractions like the v&a museum. >> the v&a is perhaps a good example of that aspiration andat e're set to deliver hopefully over the next ten, 20 years in using culture and regeneration as a way of reinvigorating both the economy, but alsohe social side of the city, as well.
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>> sreenivasan: how is it working so far? well, alexander points to a 10% increase in hotel stays as one positive sign. and six months after itsg, openhe museum has already welcomed more than half a million visitors, far exceeding expectations. that popularity has spurred somc pare the v&a dundee to the inggenheim museum in bilbao, spain, a culturaitution that helped turn the declining spanish port city into a world famous tourist destination. >> i think it's, of course, a comparison that anyboderhas to becareful-- especially my business, because of the guggenheim and bilbao has been so successful. but let's not forget t cultural developments in cities have always en a really, really important part of the life of a city. so, i ho it's a project which has very much been taken to the heart of people here in dundee bunghopefully also is attrac interest from around the wor, and the ability of this place to do exciting and bold things even though it's a city that's faced many diffilties in the past.
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>> this is pbnewshour weekend, saturday. >> sreenivasan: we wanted to take you to another unique place in scotland, the orkney islands. it's home to one of the larges archaeological digs in the world and the site of a discovery that's upended how we think of neolithic societies that existed about 5,000 years ago. >> they've obviously never, ever been used. >> sreenivasan: in a small house- turned-research base, archeologist nick card shows off a 5,000-year-old polished stone axe. >> you can see just the edge has not been damaged at al it's perfect as the day it was made. >> sreenivasan: card is the director of the ness of brodgar, a massive excavation in orkney, an archipelago of islands off the northern coast of scotland. when we visited, the site was closed for the season. but underneath these tarps is a site that has yielded hundreds of thousands of artifacts and evidence of a complex society at kie end of the stone age. >> it wasn't thi of
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knuckle-dragging neanderthals. this was a very sophisticated people who understood cosmology, who understood agriculture, and who managed to bring to bear a whole range of different skills tand techniques and to why were doing here. >> sreenivasan: built around 3200 b.c., the ness was a compx of stone buildings, so with walls more than 13 feet thick. it was in use for almost a thousand years befe it was abandoned. the site sits between two sets of stone circles, one of which predates the iconic stonehenge by centuries. but discovery of the ness was much more recent. >> in 2004, en this field in front of us was last ploughed, a big, stone slab turned up. and when we opened up just a small trench over the top of that, it turned out to be the top of one of these massive neolithic structures. >> sreenivasan: after more than a decade of digging, card says there's still to left to discover at the ness. he estimates that about 10% has been uncovered. this years excavation gets under way in july.
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>> sreenivasan: finally tonight, former six-term democratic u.s. senator and governor of south carolina, ernest "fritz" hollings, died today. first elected to thecaouth lina state legislature in 1948 at age 26, hollings went on ome lieutenant governor and then governor. in his 1958 race for governor, he campaigned againstt desegregation ter backed e blic school integration. he retired from nate in 2005 and returned home, where he gave lectureat a charleston w school and helped raise money for the medical university of sou carolina's cancer center which bears his name. senatohollings was 97. that's all for this edition of pbs newshour weekend. i'm hari sreenivasan. thanks for watching. have a good night. captioning sponsored by wnet captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by:
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beard and irene schwartz. sue and edgar wachenheim iii. seton melvin. the cheryl and philip milstein family. dr. p. roy vagelos and diana t vagelos. the j.p.b. foundation. rosalind p. walter. barbara hope zuckerber corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retiremeducts. that's why we're your retirement company. additional support has been provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting, and by contributions to your pbs iewers like you. thank you. be more. pbs. wo[narrator] explore new ds and new ideas
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through programs like this.ai made avlable for everyone, through contributions to your pbs station, from viewers like you. thank you. deepak chopra: what is the purpose for which we are here? why do we want to know ourselves? why do we want to know what happens after death? narrator: dr. deepak cpra world-renowned pioneer in integrative medicine and author of over 80 books, created the seven spiritual laws of success to help everyone overcome barpeers to reaching thei potential. deepak: the seven spiritual laws of success, thie can change how we expe the world and allow us with very little effort to fulfill our goals

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